Most General and comprehensive type of inquiry(what is true and why)
Epistemology is theory of knowledge.
Metaphysics is the theory of reality.
Epistemic realism: the view that our knowledge is true of its objects independent of our ideas, theories, and cultures.
Antirealism/relativism: our true knowledge is made true not byobjects independent of us, but by our own ideas, perspectives, theories, and cultures.
Analytic philosophy:
Continental philosophy:
Tempered view:
Scholasticism: philosophy of the schools was based Aristotle’s logic and metaphysics; is essentially aristotle plus Christianity
Scholastic: what they did no have in their religious thouht was an elaborate complex theory of nature in the natural world.
Primary being/substance/the underlying:physical objects; contains parts but is not a pat of anything;properties are predicated of it, but it is not predicated of any thing.
Doctrine of the four causes: Aristotle generalize ideal objects, atomism to a very famous doctrine: the material, the efficient, the formal, the final.
Soul: the animating principle, not the Christian notion of soul, not an eternal ongoing non-physical essence.
Aristotle’s three levels of soul: 1 vegetative soul, characteristic of plants. 2. Moving-senstive-passionate soul, characteristic of animals. 3. rational soul, charteristic of .
CGN: the only way to udnerstand these objects in this world is to turn away from your experience of them, form how they look day to day and instead pay attention to an ideal mathematical reconstruction of those objects.
Rape of the senses: Morden science does not accord with our unaided senses, it accords with mathematical theory of potentially unobservable entities that explain our sense experience in the other words the new platonic but experimental science replaced the Aristotelian quanlitative and purpose of science that have become integrated whith Christian thought


Archimedean point for all knowledge
Cogito ergo sum: I think, therefore I exist.
I: non-physical, thinking subsatnce.
extened substance/spatial extension
God must exists.
For Descartes, Reality is composed of:finite material substatnces, the essence of which is to take up space; finite mental substances, hunman minds and the human soul;on infinite mental substance, God.
Minds are non spatial thinking things without parts.Something without parts cannot come apart it can not decay. Imortal soul.
Descartes has thus provided a means a powerfull means of separating physical material reality which will noew be the province of the new science the materialist mechanical science of nature that comes especially from Galileo. The mind which is also the soul the seat of emotions which is also the seat of my own free will and hence responsible for ethics. It belongs to these fields and can’t be studied by science.
The best cognitive method God has given us we must be right otherwise God just is a deceiver.
The field of evidence presented to my individual mind is the foundation of all evidence for any claim.
Foundationalism: the belief that philosophy’s job jis to discover the foudndation or ground of all realist, objective knowledge.

John Locke

An essay concerning human understanding(1690)
an empty cabinet/a blank slate
Locke’s basic categories(all possible properties that anything in the world can have): extension, solidity, motivity, mobility, perceptivity ot thinking, existence, duration, number.
Primary qualities: in the subject(in my mind) and in the object size, volume, mass, velocity, number.
Secondary qualities : color, taste, sound
Knowledge: awareness of the agreement or disagreement of ideas with one another.
The awareness or knowledge comes in three different forms.
Intuition: the immediate recognition of the likenees or unlikeness of two ideas.
Senastion: feeling the entrance of ideas from sensation entering the mind.
Logical demostration or argument: Linking ideas together in such a way that there is a relationship of logical entailment or deduction.
Unknown support.
Locke’s method: a posteriori; based on facts about the world.
Descartes’s method: could not use a posteriori agruments because he had doubted the existence of the world.


Idealism: Reality is in some sense mental or the product of mind.
Interactions of mind and body:1. material events must be able to cause bodily and neural brain events. 2. Ideas in the mind must be able to represent things in the world that caused them; otherwise we couldn’t have knowledge.
Ideas cannot represent material objects.
Locke’s Primary quailites: ideas in the mind taht represet and resemble the same quality in the material object, like zie
Locke’s secondary qualities: caused by material events but don’t resemble them, like color.
Locke and Descartes: we perceive representations(ideas of things) outside our mind - representationalism
Berkeley: Where do representations exist? in our mind.
To be is to be percived.
Direct realism, the claim that we experience objects independent of the independent of the mind, is false.
Representationalism, the claim that we experience mental objects, but that these mental objects represent objects independent of the mind, is also false.

Neo Aristotelians - Spinoza and Leibnizg


The whole of everything: the only substance can be independent; the whole of existence is numerically one substance.
Immanent notions of God: somehow identify God with the world.
Transcendent notitons of God: see God as separate from the world.
Pantheist: an extreme form of immanentist.Infinite mentality and materialityand phisicality.
Panentheist: Nature is in God, but God is more than Nature. Spinoza.
Psychophysical parallelism: dimensions of the one. Mental events and physical events are co-ordinated in respectively minds and bodies.
Stoicism: apathy, apathos: the control of pathos, the control of emotion;
Ethics: magnum opus; the goal of human life and the highest state the mind can aspire to is a dispassionate intellectual love of God and a recognition of necessity and consequently as in Stoicism an internal state of calm acceptance rather than disturbed attachment to the faded events of this world. Spinoza is stauch critic of anthropomorphization of God. God can love this world but God has no free will and can not be conceived of as anything like a person.


Polymath, jack of all intellectual traists. Inaugurated the modern German philosophical tradition.
Monads: cannot causally interact; contain entelechy; phylogenetic thing.
Entelechy: an inner principle that unfolds all the changes it goes through with respect to other substances.
Bare monads: minimal appetition and perception.
souls: animal monads; cue ball is inanimate, but rabbit has soul.
Spirits: Monads with the property of apperception/统觉. essentially whtat that means is consciousness the ability to reflect on it’s own perceptions.SO here we have minds in our sense of the word(world?) that is human minds which capable of rational thought and they have a self now.
Space and time: continual and mere appearance; do not exist without the presence of monads.posthumous revenge on Newton.

The Enlightenment

God said, “Let Newton be,’ and there was light. - Alexander Pope
Spontaneous order: beneficial order that could be the product of undesigned activity: no one controls; only background rules govern independent action; no coordination among actions; beneficent order emerges.
Amour propre:the love of self as it is seen by others.

Dvaid Hume

Knowledge of relations of ideas: the relations one idea bears to another in my mind.
Knowledge of matters of fact
Constant cojunction:Whenever A has occurred, B has occurred.“Whenever I’ve seen smoke, I’ve seen fire.”
Necessary connection:If I say A and B are necesarily connected then I say not merely whenever A hsa occurred, B has occured. But I say Whenever A occurs B must occur: 1 whenever A occurs, A has the power to make B occur; 2 whenever A occurs in the future, B will occur.


Critique of pure reason:the theory of knowledge.
Critique of pratical reason: ethics.
Critique of judgment: aesthetics(theory of art), teleology(purpose in nature).
A priori: independent of experience.
Hume’s category of relations of ideas are both a priori and analytic.
Hume’s matters of fact are aposteriori and synthetic, or not true by definition.
Analytic: predicate conatained in subject
Synthetic: predicate not in subject
Synthetic a posteriori: Hume’s matters of fact; Belgium contains bachelors’
Analytic a priori: Hume’s relations of ideas; All bachelors are unmarried.
Synthetic apriori:non-trivial knowledge valid independent of experience.
Transcendental: the pre-structuring of experience by the mind.
Kant’s cognitive faculty:intuition, or sensibility, understanding, and reason.o
Intuition’s a priori forms: space, time
Understanding’s a priori categories: e.g., substances and their properties; necessary connection.
synthetic a priori knowledge: space,time;necessary connection; substance ( subject and predicate);

Karl Poper

Experience or observations do not confirm scientific or inductive hypotheses. The function of induction is not to confirme; it is to disconfirm hpotheses.
Falsificationism: evidence really can’t confront any theory it can only falsify theory and this would mean that scientific claims are highly fallible
Fallibilism: All our judgments are fallible.
Physicalist reductionism: the view that all scientific knowledge should in principle be reducible to physics as the most basic science.
British Emergentists: the whole has properties that are more thatn so to speak to some of the parts and in effect what the emergence said was for example the properties of chemistry can’t be deduced from the properties of physical systems the properties of biology.
Positivism: quantum mechanics,
Supervenience: While any chage in mental events or properties must presuppose a change in nerual events or properties, the mental events or properties could still not be reduced to or explained by, neural events alone
Teleological causality: when a creature with a mind has an idea, and that idea has a causal relationship to what it does.
The structure of scientific revolutions: Whig interpertation of the history science
Prardigm: the fundamental concepts and practices of a science in a period of time.
Kuhn held that the meanings of the terms used in observation and theory in any period of normal science are dependent on that holistic paradigm
incommensurable: mutually untranslatable



To the things themselves.
bracketing: suspension of judgment.
eidetic reduction
transendental ego


semiosis: sign-using; the study of signs.
signs we use are arbitrary; signs are exterior or material -not solely mental.